The Museo di Anatomia Umana dell'Università degli Studi di Perugia was founded for teaching purposes in 1814 by two important doctors from Perugia: Cesare Massari and Goffredo Belisari. They have commissioned to the waxworker of the Florentine Specola, Francesco Calenzuoli, the "wax preparations for the anatomical cabinet to be formed".
The museum, set up in 2017, completes the Casalina museum centre of CAMS and documents how anatomy has been perceived over time by teachers and the public, recounting not only the evolution of medical science, but also of culture and society.
The Museum collects over 500 skulls, a wax Venus (19th century Florentine school), other wax preparations (19th century Florentine school), anatomical preparations including dried encephali, whole skeletons (19th and 20th century), collection of human bones representative of various stages of development (19th century), anatomical tables by Mascagni (19th century), anatomy books.
The exhibition is divided into three sections: the first concerns artificial anatomy, where works of art created between 1600 and 1830 by painters, sculptors and engravers are exhibited. The second section, dedicated to natural anatomy, consists of the finds obtained between 1830 and 1930 from real bodies; the only ones able to ensure the scientific rigor required by the increasing specialization. The section also includes three mummies by Ferentillo, datable between the 17th and the beginning of the 19th century. The third and last section is that of criminal anthropology, a pseudoscience conceived around 1875 by the scholar Cesare Lombroso, who was looking for a propensity of individuals to crime, analyzing their morphological and physiological characteristics.